Line Graphs-IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING TASK 1

Vocabulary for Describing Trends

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1.Verbs and nouns for describing trends and changes

 

Trend Verbs Nouns
  • rise (rose-risen)
  • increase
  • go up (went up-gone up)
  • grow
  • double
  • triple
  • soar
  • Jump
  • a rise
  • an increase
  • a growth
  • an upward trend
  • a doubling in +
  • a trebling in + n.
  • fall (fell-fallen)
  • decline
  • decrease
  • dip (dipped)
  • drop (dropped)
  • go down (went down-gone down)
  • halve
  • dive
  • a fall
  • a decline
  • a decrease
  • a drop
  • a reduction
  • do not change (did not change)
  • maintain the same level
  • remain stable
  • remain unchanged
  • no change
Constant Change
  • fluctuate [around x]/[between x and y]
  • a fluctuation
Position
  • stand at (stood at)
  • level off (levelled off)
  • plateau (plateaued)
  • stabilise
  • peak [at x]
  • reach
  • hit
  • a levelling off
  • a plateau
  • hit/reach a high [of x]
  • hit/reach a peak [of x]
  • hit/reach a low [of x]

2.Adjectives and adverbs for degree of change

Degree Adjective Adverb
Very extensive change dramatic dramatically
huge
enormous enormously
Extensive change substantial substantially
considerable considerably
significant significantly
remarkable remarkably
Average change noticeable noticeably
marked markedly
moderate moderately
Small change slight slightly
small
minimal minimally

3.Adjectives and adverbs for speed of change

Speed Adjective Adverb
Quick change sharp sharply
rapid rapidly
quick quickly
swift swiftly
steep steeply
Slow change steady steadily
gradual gradually
slow slowly
Unexpected change sudden suddenly
unexpected unexpectedly
abrupt abruptly

 

 

Grammar for Describing Trends

1.Past tenses

Past simple:Used for reporting consecutive trends and events in the past:

There was a significant rise in 1964.Then, the figure dipped sharply in 1980.

Past perfect:Used for reporting what happened (e.g. the figure reached) by a given time in the past:

There was a significant rise in 1964. Then, the figure dipped sharply and had reached 5 by 1980.

2.Present tenses

Present simple:Used for reporting trends that have no specific time and occur regularly (e.g every day), or for reporting the present value or figure of a variable:

There is a significant rise at 6am every morning. Then the figure increases sharply at 8am.

The number of people suffering from diarrhoea now stands at 158.

Present perfect:Used for reporting trends that started in the past and have continued until the present time or continue into the future:

There has been a significant rise since 2013, and the figure now stands at 15000.

There has been a significant rise since 2013, and the figure is expected to reach 15000 in 2020.

3.Future

Future forms are used to describe trends that are predicted and projected for future times and dates. You should note that none of these predictions are certain, and therefore a level of uncertainty is desirable in your report.

The figure will probably/likely reach 15000 in 2020.

The figure should reach 15000 in 2020.

The figure is likely to reach 15000 in 2020.

 

Predictions
Forecasts
Estimates
Evaluations
Calculations
show
reveal
indicate
that the figure will increase and reach 800 in 2050.
It is predicted
expected
anticipated
forecast
estimated
that the figure will increase and reach 800 in 2050.
The figure is predicted
expected
nticipated
forecast estimated
to increase and reach 800 in 2050.

 

Example

Notice how the verbs in the following paragraphs have been changed from past forms into future forms*:

In 1999, the proportion of people using the Internet in the USA was about 20%. The figures for Canada and Mexico were lower, at about 10% and 5% respectively. In 2005, Internet usage in both the USA and Canada rose to around 70% of the population, while the figure for Mexico reached just over 25%.

In 2020, the proportion of people using the Internet in the USA is expected to be about 20%. The figures for Canada and Mexico are likely to be lower, at about 10% and 5% respectively. In 2030, it is predicted that Internet usage in both the USA and Canada will rise to around 70% of the population, while the figure for Mexico should reach just over 25%.

Linking

1.First event:

At first, Initially

In the first year, In 1999,

In the first year, 1999, In the first year (1999),

2.Middle events:

…and/but… However/Nevertheless, Then

Next,

After this/that, Following this/that, Afterwards,

This is followed by + <n/n.p>

…following which…

…after which…

…which is followed by… + <n/n.p>

…until…after which…

…until…following which…

…until…when…

…before… + <sentence or n.p.>

during/over the next…years

…years later,

3. Final event:

Finally, Ultimately,

…before finally…

 

Approaches to reporting figures

1. x g y

2.x ± Δ

3.Proportional changes

4.Rounding

 For Trends:

  • relatively
  • rather
  • almost

For Values:

  • roughly
  • almost [just]
  • about
  • approximately
  • around
  • just about
  • [just] below/under
  • [just] above/over
  • a little/slightly more than
  • a little/slightly less than

5.  Referencing

Referencing is reporting a figure by comparing it to a relevant previously-reported figure on the same line or one of the lines already report. The new figure can be reported as a multiple or proportion of the referenced figure:

In 2000 the figure reached the same level as in 1960.

It rose significantly in 2000 when it was half as high as it was in 1985.

 

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