Comparison Language

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1.Introducing Differences

 Generally, there is a significant difference between a and b.
a wide disparity in + n.

2.Comparative Structures

In contrast (to A),
In comparison (with A)
B is larger/smaller by x.
by a narrow margin. by a margin of x.
by a staggering x.
A is [just]+[under/over]
x larger/smaller than B.
A is [under/over] twice
two/three times
as large/great/high as B.
A is considerably/substantially marginally/slightly greater/higher/smaller than B.
A produces/consumes/… more/less + uncountable n.
more/fewer + countable n.
than B.
the same amount/number/quantity of + n. as B.

3.Superlative Structures

A ranks/stands first/second/third/last.
A is the [second/third] largest/smallest/most significant/most productive/ … + n.
A has the [second/third] greatest/widest/ most significant/most productive/ … + n.
A Uses
A produces
A consumes
the largest/highest/smallest/lowest proportion of + n.
quantity of + n.
amount of + uncountable n.
number of + countable n.

4.Comparison and Contrast Linkers


Over 90% of exports were fruits; however, industrial exports contributed none.

Almost all female students were interested in art activities. In contrast, the figure for male students was a mere 15%.

Most of the farmland in Europe was damaged by overgrazing. On the other hand, the most significant cause of damage in Asia was wind erosion.


Subordinating Conjunctions

Over 90% of exports were fruits, whereas / while industrial exports contributed none.

Whereas / While over 90% of exports were fruits, industrial exports contributed none.

Although almost all girls were interested in art activities, only 15% of boys took part in them.


12.1% just over 12 percent
approximately/around/about 12%
a little more than 12%
11.9% almost/nearly 12%
approximately/around/about 12%
a little less than 12%
just below 12%
146kg almost/nearly 150 kg
approximately/around/about 150 kg
less than 150 kg

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