Process and Cycle Diagrams-IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING TASK 1
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…and the process/procedure/cycle starts over again.



1.1 Tenses:

Generally, the present simple tense is used to report actions which regularly happen in a process.

The larvae feed on mulberry leaves for up to 6 weeks.

Sometimes, the present perfect may also be used to signify the completion of a stage.

Once the electricity has been generated, it is transmitted to the station.

1.2 Passive vs. Active form

  • Natural events:For events which happen autonomously in nature, such as rain, formation of clouds or erosion of mountains, generally use the active form unless you need to shift focus from the subject to the object of the stage.

The larvae begin forming cocoons around themselves using silk threads.

Numerous eggs are laid by a moth and hatch after 10 days.

  • Artificial events:In artificial stages, the human subjects are usually ignored so use the passive to focus on what is being done. If the subject has also been mentioned in the diagram, add it as an “agent”.

Energy is sent to the substations by means of transmission lines.


2.Describing Purpose:

When you need to report the means or tool used to perform a stage, avoid using “by”:

  • For tools: It is done using/through the use of/by means of…

The mixture is cut into individual bricks using a wire cutter.

  • For ways and methods: It is done through/via/by means of…

The oil is transferred to the refinery through a pipeline.



The First Stage

First, Firstly, First off, First of all,
In the first stage, At/In the beginning,
The first stage is when…
The process begins/starts/commences when… The process begins with + <n./n.p.>

Middle Stages:

Next, Then
After this/that, Following this/that, Afterwards,
In the following stage,
In the stage after/following this, In the stage that follows,
Over the course of/During the next/following/second/third stage, This is followed by + <n./n.p.>
When/After/Once <stage A>, <stage B>
<stage A>. When/Once this stage is complete, <stage B>
<stage A> before <stage B as n./n.p. or clause>
Before <stage B>, <stage A>
<stage A> after/following which <stage B>
<stage A> which is followed by <stage B as n./n.p.>

The Last Stage:

Finally, Ultimately, Eventually,
The last/final stage is when … The process ends when …
The process ends with + <n./n.p.>
<stage A> before finally <stage B as n./n.p.>